Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Modified Basal Plane Pyrolytic Graphite Electrodes: Exploring Heterogeneity, Electro-catalysis and Highlighting Batch to Batch Variation
C.P. Jonesa, K. Jurkschatb, A. Crossleyb and C.E. Banksa,*
aFaculty of Science and Engineering, Division of Chemistry and Materials, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, Lancs, United Kingdom
bDepartment of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH, United Kingdom
(Received 12 July 2007, Accepted 13 September 2007)
We highlight the heterogeneity and electro-catalysis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes which is shown to be dependant on batch to batch variation via the use of cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Batch to batch variation is often an overlooked parameter which may limit their use in electrochemistry, and in particular, in the development and realisation of commercial electroanalytical sensors and therefore needs to be considered.
Keywords:Bamboo multi-walled carbon nanotubes, Electrochemical reactivity, Metal impurities, Electron transfer, Catalyst impurities